Category Archives: Book Printing

Why You Need a Graphic Designer Who Understands Printing

In this post, I want to discuss why you need a graphic designer who understands printing. This is especially true if you wish to print business cards, book marks, and other marketing materials.

Why You Need a Graphic Designer Who Understands Printing

Why You Need a Graphic Designer Who Understands Printing

In past posts, I mentioned the different printing processes and what each one is used for. I also discuss that today’s digital printers can only handle certain paper sizes and weights.

Now I want to take this a step further to discuss specialty “soft touch” papers and soft touch finishes. These are popular choices for those who want to emulate elegance and sophistication. But they have their limitations.

Why You Need a Graphic Designer Who Understands Printing

Graphic designers are truly creative people who can take your author business to the next level. They can design stunning business cards, book marks, trade show banners, et cetera, to complement your books. Many of them are recommending soft touch to their clients nowadays. Feel a soft touch business card or presentation folder just once, and you’ll understand why.

But before you hire a graphic designer to help you produce any speciality marketing materials, ask if he or she has a printing background. If not, ask that designer to vet his or her recommendations through a local printer before presenting them to you. It will save you a lot of time having your print jobs quoted and requoted several times over.

Some of these specialty papers/finishes cannot be run through digital printers. They’ll either get jammed or they’ll melt. They can only be printed on an offset press, which means you’ll have to produce large quantities of them. As discussed in an earlier post, offset presses cannot be used for short runs. This is because the set-up cost is far too high to print only a few copies at a reasonable price.

Related reading: Why Do Authors Need Graphic Designers?

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As a user of this website, you are authorized only to view, copy, print, and distribute the documents on this website so long as: one (1) the document is used for informational purposes only; and two (2) any copy of the document (or portion thereof) includes the following copyright notice: Copyright © 2019 Polished Publishing Group (PPG). All rights reserved.



What is the difference between offset printing and digital printing?

What is the difference between offset printing and digital printing?

What is the difference between offset printing and digital printing?

It used to be that, whenever a book was published, there was automatically a large quantity of 1,000 or more copies printed. All these books were then stored away in large warehouses by the publisher and/or its distributor(s). Long run printing was done because there was only one type of printer available to publishers back then: offset. An offset printing press is “old-school printing” in that it uses liquid ink, is the most cost-effective option for higher print quantities, and offers better colour control than today’s digital printers do. The downside is that offset presses cannot be used for short runs. This is because the set-up cost is far too high to print only a few copies at a reasonable price.

What is the difference between offset printing and digital printing?

Today’s publishers (and self-publishers) have more choices available to them. If you want to print 1,000+ books straightaway and pay the lowest possible cost per unit, you can still use offset printing. Alternatively, you can choose to print smaller quantities of books using two different digital printing solutions: print-on-demand (POD) and short run printing.

A digital printer is what every business has in its office. These printers use dry toner rather than liquid ink and can run smaller quantities at a cost-effective price. The turnaround time for digital printing tends to be faster than offset. This is not only because of the smaller quantities but also the quicker set-up time for each job.

The difference between the digital printer at your office and one you’ll find at a professional print shop is that the latter offers “bigger, stronger, faster” technology. Also, it is run by trained operators who know exactly which settings to use for each individual print job.

What is print-on-demand (POD) printing?

Ecommerce retailers, such as Amazon, utilize POD and short run digital technologies to sell physical books online. In other words, they won’t print and store any physical copies of your paperback book in a large warehouse anywhere. Instead, they’ll store only the digital cover and interior files that you’ve uploaded to their site. And they will print, bind, and ship only as many copies as someone buys from them at any given time. This saves you from having to print any upfront copies whatsoever. If someone buys ten copies of your book, ten copies will be printed, bound, and shipped to that buyer. If another person buys only one, then Amazon will print, bind, and ship only one—hence the term “print-on-demand.”

Related reading:
Is Book Printing a Good Idea for Indie Authors?
Book Binding: What Are Your Options?

Book Trim Sizes: What Are Your Options?

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As a user of this website, you are authorized only to view, copy, print, and distribute the documents on this website so long as: one (1) the document is used for informational purposes only; and two (2) any copy of the document (or portion thereof) includes the following copyright notice: Copyright © 2019 Polished Publishing Group (PPG). All rights reserved.



Print-on-Demand (POD) Limitations [Endsheets Endpapers Endleaves]

Some clients come to PPG wanting us to help them design and publish hardcover books they can also sell online. This is possible. But there are limitations with print-on-demand (POD) books, particularly when it comes to endsheets endpapers endleaves. This feature can only be produced using a traditional offset printing press and manual binding process. In this post, I’ll touch on why this is the case. 

Digital Book Printing Limitations [Endsheets Endpapers Endleaves]: taken from https://www.bookmobile.com/book-production/hardcover-book-printing-know-how-printed-endsheets-and-endpapers/

Digital Book Printing Limitations [Endsheets Endpapers Endleaves]: taken from https://www.bookmobile.com/book-production/hardcover-book-printing-know-how-printed-endsheets-and-endpapers/

As shown above, one side of each folded piece of paper is glued to the insides of the front and back covers. This is what creates endsheets. It is a careful manual binding process that must be completed by a person. As such, it can’t be done by a POD printer. Digital POD printers are designed to mechanically print and bind individual books quickly.

POD Limitations [Endsheets Endpapers Endleaves]

Here’s another POD limitation. As I discussed in a past post regarding book trim sizes, digital printers can only handle certain paper sizes and weights. Because of that, you’re limited to certain book trim sizes, binding types, and paper stocks/colours if you wish to sell POD books online (which most of us do nowadays). Digital printers simply cannot handle the thicker paper stock that is used to create printed endsheets as illustrated below.

A Possible Solution to Have it Both Ways

When it comes to your book binding options, it is possible to produce a POD case-wrapped hardcover. But you cannot print anything on the inside of POD book covers. Nor can you insert endsheets with a different (thicker) paper stock than the book’s interior pages.

If you wish to have a traditional case-wrapped hardcover book created with printed endsheets inside, you can have this. A traditional printer in your area can print it for you. You just won’t be able to sell it online. You’ll have to sell those books direct. That said, you can also hire one of our graphic designers to produce a second POD version of your book that can be sold online. It will be almost identical to the traditionally-printed book; but the interior paper will be thinner, and there will be no endsheet included. It’s up to you.

Related reading: 3 Book Printing Tips for Indie Authors: Consider This Before Printing Any Books

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As a user of this website, you are authorized only to view, copy, print, and distribute the documents on this website so long as: one (1) the document is used for informational purposes only; and two (2) any copy of the document (or portion thereof) includes the following copyright notice: Copyright © 2019 Polished Publishing Group (PPG). All rights reserved.



Why did my paperback print in a different colour than what I saw on the computer screen?

Why did my paperback print in a different colour than what I saw on the computer screen? Colours are much more complicated than you may realize. How something looks on your computer screen may look completely different in printed format. There are many different reasons why.

Why did my paperback print in a different colour than what I saw on the computer screen?

Why did my paperback print in a different colour than what I saw on the computer screen?

RGB versus CMYK Colours

For starters, RGB (red, green, blue) colours are what you see on your computer screen. They are created using light. CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow, and black) colours are created by mixing inks/toners together in varying percentages.

When you are creating an ebook only, it’s okay to use RGB colours in your design. But if you plan to also print a paperback or hardcover version of your book, you should design it using CMYK colours. Otherwise, your printer may not be able to match the colours you’ve chosen since printers have a smaller colour gamut available than computer screens do.

Coated Paper Versus Uncoated Paper

Yet another thing that can affect the way your colour will appear after it’s printed is paper stock. In fact, the same colour can look completed different when it is printed on coated paper versus uncoated paper. I show examples of this inside 3 Book Printing Tips for Indie Authors: Consider This Before Printing Any Books.

Digital Colour Versus Offset Colour

A digital printer is what every business has in its office. These printers use dry toner rather than liquid ink and can run smaller quantities at a cost-effective price. An offset printing press is “old-school printing” in that it uses liquid ink, is the most cost-effective option for higher print quantities, and generally offers better colour control than today’s digital printers do.

Another thing that can affect how your colour appears in print is the type of printer being used. Digital prints will usually appear more “shiny” and bright whereas offset prints will appear slightly duller. This is because toner is glossy whereas ink is not.

Related reading:
Why Do Authors Need Graphic Designers?

Printers and Publishers: What Their Graphic Designers Will and Won’t Do for You

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As a user of this website, you are authorized only to view, copy, print, and distribute the documents on this website so long as: one (1) the document is used for informational purposes only; and two (2) any copy of the document (or portion thereof) includes the following copyright notice: Copyright © 2019 Polished Publishing Group (PPG). All rights reserved.



What is a Full Bleed Image?

What is a full bleed image? In printing, the term “bleed” refers the portion of an image that must be trimmed off because it extends past the page’s borders. Here is an example of a full bleed image on a book cover. All four sides of it must be trimmed to fit the page.

This book cover contains a full bleed image on it.

This book cover contains a full bleed image on it.

When you create any page (whether it’s an interior page or a book cover) with a full bleed image, you must leave room for trimming. Most printers will recommend allowing for a 1/4″ (quarter inch) bleed on all sides of the image when designing it. That way, nothing important will be trimmed off by mistake.

Floating Images With (or Without) Borders

Sometimes, you don’t want a full bleed image on the page. Instead, you may prefer that image to “float” in the white space around it. Here is an example of a floating image.

This book cover contains a floating image on it.

This book cover contains a floating image on it.

In this case, there is no need to account for trimming on any part of the image. So long as it is a print-ready file (300 DPI or better), it can be sized to fit the page however you want it to.

Preparing Graphic Files for Your Book

A graphic is defined as any picture, illustration, chart, image, logo, or graph you would like placed either in your book interior or on your book cover.

Colour Graphics

All colour graphics must be submitted to PPG in either .jpg (.jpeg) or .tif (.tiff) format, with a minimum resolution of 300 DPI, using the CMYK colour model.

Black and White Graphics

All black and white graphics must be submitted to PPG in either .jpg (.jpeg) or .tif (.tiff) format with a minimum resolution of 300 DPI. For best results, these images should be sent as grayscale/monochrome files. (CMYK colour images will not reproduce as well in black and white as grayscale/monochrome images will.)

What is a Full Bleed Image?

Truly, there is no right or wrong when it comes to using full bleed or floating images for your book. Much of this is subjective and all about personal preference. But keep in mind that printing a book filled with full bleed images will tend to be more expensive. These images use more ink, and there is also more time and labour involved regarding trimming the pages precisely.

Related reading: Preparing Your Digital Files for a Book Publisher

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As a user of this website, you are authorized only to view, copy, print, and distribute the documents on this website so long as: one (1) the document is used for informational purposes only; and two (2) any copy of the document (or portion thereof) includes the following copyright notice: Copyright © 2019 Polished Publishing Group (PPG). All rights reserved.



Book Distribution Options for Independent Authors

book distribution optionsbook distribution options

book distribution options

Wondering how to distribute your book to your reader base? That all depends on how and where you publish it. In this post, we’ll look at the book distribution options available to independent authors.

Ebook-only Distribution Options

You may not need to produce a paperback version of your book if you plan to distribute it online only. When you publish an .epub through Kobo, or a .mobi through Amazon, your book will only be available through these companies’ online distribution networks.

In Canada, Kobo is partnered with Chapters Indigo. So, when you publish an .epub through Kobo Writing Life, it will show up on both Kobo and Chapters Indigo websites. Books that are published to Amazon through Kindle Direct Publishing (KDP), on the other hand, will only be available for sale through Amazon’s ecommerce site.

Digital Book Distribution Options

The term “digital book” can refer to ebooks, paperbacks, and even hardcovers. Online worldwide book distributors, such as Amazon and Ingram Content Group, utilize print-on-demand (POD) technology to sell physical books online. In other words, they won’t print and store any physical copies of your paperback/hardcover book in a large warehouse anywhere.

Instead, they’ll store only the digital cover and interior files that you’ve uploaded to their sites. And they will print, bind, and ship only as many copies as someone buys from them at any given time. Of course, this saves you from having to print any upfront copies whatsoever. If someone goes to their site to buy ten copies of your book, then ten copies will be printed, bound, and shipped to that buyer. If another person buys only one, then they will print, bind, and ship only one—hence the term “print on demand.” This is a definite pro, isn’t it?

Now here are the cons: digital printers can only handle certain trim sizes and paper weights. This limits you to certain book trim sizes, binding types, and paper stocks/colours.

Traditional Distribution Options

If you want your books sold on traditional booksellers’ bookshelves, you must play by the peculiar rules set by the traditional book supply chain. And, believe me, peculiar is the best word to describe these old rules.

As well, most “bricks and mortar” booksellers and libraries will only purchase their books through established distributors such as Ingram Content Group. They simply won’t deal with individual authors on anything more than a per-event consignment basis.

Related reading: Is Book Printing a Good Idea for Indie Authors?

Related reading: Printers and Publishers: What Their Graphic Designers Will and Won’t Do for You

Related reading: Why Do Authors Need Graphic Designers?

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As a user of this website, you are authorized only to view, copy, print, and distribute the documents on this website so long as: one (1) the document is used for informational purposes only; and two (2) any copy of the document (or portion thereof) includes the following copyright notice: Copyright © 2019 Polished Publishing Group (PPG). All rights reserved.



How to Price a Paperback Book

There are two main things you must consider regarding how to price a paperback book: who is printing the book; who is buying the book. These are your hard costs.

How to Price a Paperback Book

How to Price a Paperback Book

Who is Printing Your Paperback Book?

Any books that are printed using print-on-demand (POD) technology will cost more per unit than books that are printed in large quantities on traditional offset presses. As a result, you’ll have a smaller profit margin on POD books.

Still, it’s important to take advantage of POD in this day and age. It allows your customers to buy your books one at a time on ecommerce sites like Amazon. It also allows independent authors to print small quantities of your books at reasonable prices, as selling opportunities arise. For example, one paperback book may cost around $6 per unit to print on demand digitally.

Traditional offset presses are designed to print larger quantities of books at a lower cost per unit. In fact, they can’t print small quantities economically. It may only cost around $2 per unit to produce 1,000 copies of that same book on an offset press. The downside to printing this many copies is that it requires a large upfront investment. You will also have the added cost/hassle of warehousing all your books.

How to Price a Paperback Book: Printing Options

There’s a time and a place to use each type of printer, which is why PPG returns all working files and finished files to our authors. This allows you to choose if/where you’re going to print your book based on who you’re selling it to:

  • Traditional offset printing: best price for 1000+ copies
  • Standard digital printing: best price for 100 to 999 copies
  • Print-on-demand (POD) digital printing: best price for one to 99 copies

It’s always wise to contact a few printers to obtain quotes for 50, 250, 500, and 1000 books. Make your decision from there.

Who is Buying Your Paperback Book?

On that note, authors who wish to sell copies of your books through local retailers, such as book stores, will also have to factor each retailer’s profit share into your final retail price. Retailers/wholesalers buy publishers’ books at steep discounts in order to turn their own profits. They also expect your title to be marked as “returnable” (for a full refund) in case it doesn’t sell. Here are the industry standards for such discounts:

  • Book Wholesalers (i.e. Ingram, Baker & Taylor, libraries): 50-55% discount
  • Book Retailers (i.e. Chapters, McNally Robinson): 40-45% discount

Once your book has been designed and the final trim size, page count, picture count, and interior (black and white/colour) has been determined, a printer will be able to provide you with the cost per unit to print your book. It is best to factor in the highest possible printing cost (POD) along with the highest possible discount (wholesaler) when determining your book’s retail price. For example, if your POD cost per copy is $4.50, then your retail price should be set at $11.99 minimum as shown here:

How to Price a Paperback Book

How to Price a Paperback Book

Again, these costs are only a small part of the equation when determining the price of a paperback book and should only be used to calculate the lowest possible retail price. You should also do a thorough examination of your audience and what they value most.

Related reading: How to Price an Ebook: A Guide for Independent Authors

Related reading: Is Book Printing a Good Idea for Indie Authors?

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As a user of this website, you are authorized only to view, copy, print, and distribute the documents on this website so long as: one (1) the document is used for informational purposes only; and two (2) any copy of the document (or portion thereof) includes the following copyright notice: Copyright © 2019 Polished Publishing Group (PPG). All rights reserved.



Is Book Printing a Good Idea for Indie Authors?

Is book printing a good idea for indie authors? That’s a loaded question. There are many things to consider regarding cost, inventory, distribution, and even colour reproduction.

Is book printing a good idea for indie authors?

Is book printing a good idea for indie authors?

Book Printing Lessons Learned the Hard Way

If I knew eight years ago what I know today, I would have given very different advice to a high-profile author regarding her book printing options. At the time, I figured she was a certain best seller in Canada. Not only was she a prominent Canadian athlete, but she was regularly hosted by our national media to speak about her sport.

With guaranteed publicity exposure like that, I was confident she could easily print and sell 2,000 copies of her book. I even assumed she would sell them out so fast that she’d have to print another 2,000 within a few months. We mutually (naively) agreed to this large offset book printing option so she would pay a lower cost per unit. We figured she would save money in the long run. And she would ultimately earn a higher profit per unit on all the books she sold.

In hindsight, we should have had a more in-depth conversation—the discussion I now have with all my authors. Never again will I ever make book printing recommendations based on one’s professional status, popularity, media exposure, or assumed readership. Why? Because this author still has a garage full of books that she never did sell … a fact that bothers me every day. I wish I had done things differently for her. Below is a list of the questions I wish we had clearly answered before printing any books.

How will people know where to buy the books you’ve printed?

3 Book Printing Tips for Indie Authors

3 Book Printing Tips for Indie Authors

During my book publishing career, I’ve worked with two sports icons and other prominent business professionals on their book projects. I’ve learned that, many times, the most successful people are also the most humble people. They don’t boast about their accomplishments. In fact, they don’t enjoy talking about themselves at all. This makes selling books a real challenge. Because the only way to sell your books is to talk about them. And you cannot just mention, “Hey, I’ve written a new book,” and leave it at that. You must come right out and say, “I’ve written a new book, and here’s where you can buy a copy.”

You must ask for the sale in order to make the sale. Over and over and over again. Until all the books you’ve printed are sold.

This author rarely ever mentioned her book during all the media interviews she gave, never mind informing people they could buy copies directly from her. She had the book listed on her website, but she seldom mentioned her website address to the media. Perhaps she thought her website had a strong enough SEO that it would easily attract relevant traffic to her book. And perhaps she also thought, once that traffic arrived, book sales would automatically result.

Rarely does it ever work that way. No matter who you are, you must ask for the sale in order to make the sale. Or hire someone to do that for you.

Here’s the irony in all this: her book is a best seller on Amazon several times over. People went there to buy the digital print-on-demand paperback version of her book, but very few visited her website to buy it direct. So, this bestselling author still has several hundred printed books collecting dust in her garage.

How are you going to distribute the books you’re storing at your home?

When we decided to print her books, we knew she could easily store them in her garage for free. Storage was no problem for her at all. But we never discussed the logistics of actually distributing those books to the buyers who would later purchase them from her website, and this is a critical detail to think through.

Sure, you can expect to pay a lower cost per unit when you print books in bulk. But what is your cost for packaging and delivering each book down the road? Are your buyers able to pick up their books in person? Or can you deliver en masse in person (e.g., selling direct at the back of a conference room at speaking events)? If not, you’ll have to pay for packaging, delivery costs, and possibly even customs fees for buyers who are located outside your country. All these costs can add up and take a huge chunk out of your profits.

On the other hand, if you’re passing those costs onto your buyers, it may prevent them from purchasing from you at all. It might be easier for them to just order your book from ecommerce sites like Amazon that can offer them a much lower shipping rate than you can.

Will local bookstores inventory and sell your printed books for you?

Book Distribution Truths

Book Distribution Truths

No. They won’t.

For the authors who believe you’ll be able to print and sell direct to popular “bricks and mortar” book retailers, I highly recommend you download and read this additional FREE ebookWhy Traditional Bookstores Won’t Carry Your Book on Their Shelves … and Why That’s Okay. The truth is, if you want your book placed in a local bookstore’s inventory, you must play by the peculiar rules set by the traditional book supply chain. And, believe me, peculiar is the best word to describe these old rules … as I’m sure you’ll agree once you read the book.

As well, most “bricks and mortar” booksellers (e.g., Chapters Indigo, Barnes & Noble, Waterstones, and Blackwell’s, et cetera) and libraries will only purchase their books through established distributors such as Ingram Content Group. They simply won’t deal with individual authors on anything more than a per-event consignment basis.

3 Book Printing Tips for Indie Authors

The above questions are far from the only considerations you must make when deciding on your book printing options. In 3 Book Printing Tips for Indie Authors, I discuss many more.

There is much to think about, much to consider when it comes to book printing. For example, printers can be finicky machines at times. Have you ever wondered why, sometimes, a colour image looks different on your computer screen than it does in a printed document? This has much to do with the way the colour file was created by the designer as well as the type of paper it is being printed on and the type of printer being used. If colour precision is important to you, then you need a professional designer to help you design your book before you print it.

Before you engage in any type of book printing at all, be sure to read the above books and answer all these questions for yourself. It could save you a lot of time and money.

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As a user of this website, you are authorized only to view, copy, print, and distribute the documents on this website so long as: one (1) the document is used for informational purposes only; and two (2) any copy of the document (or portion thereof) includes the following copyright notice: Copyright © 2018 Polished Publishing Group (PPG). All rights reserved.



3 Book Printing Tips for Indie Authors: Consider This Before Printing Any Books

NOW AVAILABLE through Amazon’s Kindle, Kobo, and E-Sentral! Order it today!

Whenever prospective clients contact my company for a book publishing quote, they invariably request a book printing quote to go along with it. I tell them that, to figure out your initial publishing costs—the professional editing, graphic design, proofreading, indexing, and administrative costs involved in publishing a book—a publisher will need to know five things:

  1. How many words are included both inside your book’s interior and on its cover?
  2. How many images/graphics are included both inside your book’s interior and on its cover?
  3. Will your book have a colour or black and white interior? (If colour, will it be a full bleed?)
  4. What trim size (e.g., 5 x 8″, 5.5 x 8.5″, 6 x 9″, 8.5 x 11″) do you want?
  5. What format (e.g., paperback, case-wrapped hardcover, dust-jacketed hardcover) do you want?

Figuring out your book printing costs is even more involved than that. It is only once your book is fully formatted and you know all the above information plus the page count of the final-designed book that you can officially request a book printing quote. (The page count of a final-designed book is almost always different from the page count of your initial manuscript.)

There is much to think about, much to consider when it comes to book printing. I also ask each author, “How many books are you thinking about printing, and have you considered how and where you’re going to sell them?” Some people are puzzled by that question, assuming the publisher will actively sell your books for you. I published this FREE ebook for these individuals a while ago: Your Ebook is an Asset … if You Own the Copyright. The moral of the story is there’s no point in printing any books at all unless you have a clear idea of how to distribute them—successfully. Otherwise, you’ll end up wasting a lot of money in book printing costs followed by even more in storage costs.

For the authors who believe you’ll be able to print and sell direct to popular “bricks and mortar” book retailers, I highly recommend you download and read this additional FREE ebook: Why Traditional Bookstores Won’t Carry Your Book on Their Shelves … and Why That’s Okay. The truth is, if you want your book placed on the physical shelves of a traditional bookstore, you must play by the peculiar rules set by the traditional book supply chain. And, believe me, peculiar is the best word to describe these old rules … as I’m sure you’ll agree once you read the book. As well, most “bricks and mortar” booksellers (e.g., Chapters Indigo, Barnes & Noble, Waterstones, and Blackwell’s, et cetera) and libraries will only purchase their books through established distributors. They simply won’t deal with individual authors.

Add to all this the fact that printers can be finicky machines at times. Have you ever wondered why, sometimes, a colour image looks different on your computer screen than it does in a printed document? This has much to do with the way the colour file was created by the designer as well as the type of paper it is being printed on and the type of printer being used.

There is MUCH to consider with book printing. Before you engage in any type of book printing at all, read this book! It could save you a lot of time and money down the road. For those who still wish to print their books, this guide will help you to produce the best book printing result possible.



Learn at Your Own Pace: Online Courses in Writing, Publishing, and Selling Books

Through Udemy‘s online learning portal, PPG can help you build on your book writing, publishing, and selling skills from the comfort of your home and at your own pace. Here are just three of the courses that can help you with every aspect of your next book project from start to finish:


ONLINE COURSE: Writing A Book: The First Draft


ONLINE COURSE: Writing With Flair: How To Become An Exceptional Writer


ONLINE COURSE: Self-Publishing Success in Bookstores and Online!

Check them out today. Just click on the above pictures to be redirected to the course landing page where you can enroll and start learning immediately. Good luck and enjoy.

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As a user of this website, you are authorized only to view, copy, print, and distribute the documents on this website so long as: one (1) the document is used for informational purposes only; and two (2) any copy of the document (or portion thereof) includes the following copyright notice: Copyright © 2017 Polished Publishing Group (PPG). All rights reserved.